How Indiahikes is making your trek safe

This is the final article of a three-part series written by Arjun Majumdar about safety on high altitude treks. Read the previous post here.

In my last post I expressed my anxiety and frustration at how loosely trekkers in our country take preparing for a trek. Lack of preparation has become an epidemic. As more and more unprepared trekkers are getting to high altitudes the risks are enormous. Naturally, safety on treks comes into question.

Even Indiahikes cannot insure a trekker’s life unless safety is seen as a two way process. Trekkers play as big a role in safety as the organisation.

safety on indiahikes treks
A Trek Leader watches over trekkers as they trek through a boulder section on the Hampta Pass trek. PC – Milind Tambe

Before I get into some of the new safety protocols Indiahikes has brought in, I want to share some background.

Indiahikes has always been at the forefront in bringing in new safety practices into Indian trekking. Microspikes for walking on snow was introduced by Indiahikes. Emergency bottled oxygen on all treks was made mandatory by Indiahikes. So was using pulse oxymeters to test pulse and oxygen saturation levels. Radio as safety communication device was introduced in treks by Indiahikes. Though not every organisation follow these systems, I am happy to see many of our competing organisations adopting these practices (fairly quickly, I must admit!).

As I write this post, I am aware even these new practices that I am going to talk about will be adopted by other organisations, perhaps in record time. Why then do I talk about these new protocols openly in a post like this?

By discussing these new safety protocols I have three purposes in mind: One, I get quick feedback on how some of these protocols are looked at. For me, this is the fastest way to reach out to trekkers. Two, many of our trekkers are in the dark about these protocols. I don’t like that. I feel it is unwise for anyone to trek unless they know what safety practices are in place. Finally, Indiahikes is the leading trek organisation in India. What we do becomes the industry standard. While we usually go about our work quietly, sometimes, on topics as serious as this, it is important for people to know what the industry leader is doing.

I know many of these safety protocols are hard pills to swallow. Yet, I firmly believe, for the sake of future of trekking in India, these steps are very much required.

Here then are the new safety protocols that Indiahikes is bringing in.

Pre-Trek Safety Checks

1. Eligibility Criteria for Treks

This is something new that we are bringing in. Every trek will require a minimum fitness criteria for registration. By the time a trek starts, participants are expected to reach a fitness criteria unique to each trek. Proof of performance is shared by using fitness apps. Sufficient time is given for preparation. If, within the last ten days, a candidate is not able to meet our fitness expectations, then he is dropped from the trek group and his money refunded.

What do we expect out of this? We expect trekkers to prepare for a trek. Lack of preparation is inexcusable. It not only affects safety of a trek for the entire team, it also spirals out on the overall enjoyment of the trek.

2. BMI cutoffs for treks

Our statistics show overweight trekkers are becoming a big safety concern. While I do not want to get into personal lifestyle we do notice overweight trekkers do not prepare enough for a trek. 

We have now introduced BMI cutoffs in our registration process. Our BMI cut off is 28 for an easy trek, 27 for a moderate trek and 26 for a difficult trek. Those who fall between 25 and the BMI cut off will have to show us proof of fitness performance.

Our logic: Anyone above a BMI of 25 is considered overweight (though above 23 in Indian conditions is more appropriate). We have kept a wide cut off margin keeping in mind Indian lifestyle conditions. But really, we cannot be harbouring trekkers who are unprepared and overweight. It puts the entire team’s safety at risk.

Some trekkers feel BMI check is not a fair system, that many folks with high muscle mass can have high BMI. Then some trekkers who have high BMI but otherwise trek well also feel this is not very fair. My response to this is we deal with thousands of trekkers. We need to put in a system that will screen thousands. BMI is a globally accepted norm for those overweight. Frankly, our worry is not high BMI. Our worry is proof of performance. If you have high BMI but confident of your performance, then you have nothing to worry about. Just send us proof of performance and we should be ok.   

3. Extra acclimatisation day

Indiahikes has now added an extra acclimatisation day on all treks. Treks that were 6 days long will now take 7 days. The acclimatisation day is meant to give rest and more oxygenation time. We have seen adequate rest goes a long way in ensuring successful completion of a trek. On some treks the acclimatisation day is a short trek to another camp, generally less than 3 hours without much altitude gain. For instance on the Roopkund trek, an extra day has been added at Bedni Bugyal, with a short climb to Bedni Top and back.

We have not raised our trek fee to accommodate the acclimatisation day. An extra day on a trek usually means an increase in trek fee by around Rs 2,500. Indiahikes will absorb this cost for the moment.

The view of Mt Trishul from the Bedni Bugyal campsite. The Roopkund itinerary has an added day at Bedni Bugyal for acclimatisation. PC: Nikshep

On-Trek Safety Checks

1. On-arrival health check

This is another system that has been brought in. Every trekker’s health is checked on arrival at the base camp. Parameters that we check are their personal medical records, Blood Pressure and BMI. BP is something we take a very close look at. Trekkers with high BP worry us.

Trekkers who report a systolic reading of 160 or diastolic reading of 100 (or above) are at grave risk. Usually, trekkers with such high readings recover after a night’s sleep. However, in some cases they do not recover. Unfortunately, such trekkers will not be allowed to trek. This process is already operational.

Reasoning: Medically, anyone with high BP must not be allowed to do strenuous activity like a trek. The risk of stroke or a heart failure is very high. Outside that, we have noticed trekkers with high blood pressure often find a trek very grueling. They get dizzy, nauseated and usually hyperventilate. This is not OK at high altitudes.

2. Health Card

trek-safety-health-card-indiahikesTrekkers are issued health cards after their primary health check is done. The health card records all critical physiological parameters of a trekker as he progresses through the trek. It is recorded everyday. The health card is also a self diagnostic tool that allows a trekker to see how he is doing.

Our belief is that a trekker who is in a position to monitor his own parameters is in a position to take a lot of safety calls. A knowledgeable trekker is far less a safety hazard than someone who is ignorant. The health card also helps the trek leader monitor a trekker without relying on intuition or judgement. As a side benefit the health card helps us gather valuable data about trekker physiology spread over various terrains, in different weather situations.   

3. Daily BP reading and cutoff

Every trekker’s BP reading is monitored daily. Systolic reading above 160 and Diastolic reading above 100 are our cutoffs. Any readings above our cut offs will mean descent to the base camp. I have already explained the rationale earlier. 

4. Daily oxygen saturation and pulse readings (thrice a day)

Oxygen saturation shows the amount of oxygen in your blood. As you climb higher the oxygen saturation percentage in your blood reduces. Only when your body acclimatises to the lower levels of oxygen, the oxygen saturation level in your blood increases. This is normal. It is not a cause for worry. However, there is a point beyond which the oxygen saturation in your blood must not fall. At very low oxygen saturation levels your vital organs start to malfunction. A trek can suddenly become a death trap.

Similarly, your pulse. Your heart must not beat above a certain rate per minute. A high pulse rate indicates an overworked heart which is pushing itself to oxygenate the blood. While a higher pulse rate at altitudes is expected, a pulse rate above 140 is not acceptable. An overworked heart can collapse. Trekkers with such pulse rates will be sent down. 

Your oxygen saturation and pulse readings are taken thrice daily, once on arrival at camp, again in the evening and before your trek starts the next morning. There are cutoffs for both oxygen saturation and pulse readings. These cutoffs change as you go higher. They are mentioned in your health card.

Anyone whose readings are beyond our cutoff limits is first treated. In most cases trekkers respond to treatment and recover. If readings still go outside cutoff limits, especially the following morning, the trekker is descended to base camp.

Our attempt is always to treat a problem before it takes any larger, unexpected shape. In almost 80% of the cases, if treated early, a trekker can successfully complete the trek. These new protocols help us tackle problems sooner so that trekkers do not lose out on a great trek.

5. Turn Around Time at every camp

Trekkers are expected to reach camp within an average trekking time. A grace period of ‘plus 60 minutes’ is added to the average trekking time. If trekkers do not reach camp within the grace period, it means he/she is not physically ready for the challenges of a trek. These trekkers are turned around from the trek and sent back to the base camp.  

Note: When we calculate an average trekking time, we factor an average trekker’s speed that includes breaks for rest, food and photography. A plus one hour over this is ample time to get to camp.

Reasoning: We have found extremely slow trekkers a bane on treks. A co-guide and sometimes a trek leader accompanies them. Extremely slow trekkers not only hog resources meant for the team, they also come at a big safety risk. On summit and pass days they stall the entire team. Often at 15,000 feet team members are freezing in the cold waiting for a slow member to catch up or move ahead of them. Worse, the technical team is stuck with the slow member.  

Extremely slow trekkers are also hazards to themselves. Being slow, they reach camp late, which does not allow them enough rest or acclimatisation time. Also, prolonged exposure to the cold air of high altitudes also makes them susceptible to hypothermia. On a high altitude trek these spell future trouble.

6. More Oxygen Cylinders

Two oxygen cylinders accompany every team. On longer treks there are now three (treks that are more than 4 days long). These cylinders are heavy duty and take care of most medical emergencies. Oxygen lasts for 2 hours in an emergency. Treks that have fixed camps have additional cylinders installed at every camp.

At high altitude, the biggest risk is the low availability of oxygen, more than the risks of falling or getting lost. An increase in the number of bottles that are carried on a trek brings more safety.

7. Stretchers accompany the team on every trek

This is a mandatory evacuation device. Though it is rarely used, a stretcher must be present on all treks. On treks with fixed camps, stretchers are available at every camp. On this note, I must add on some sections of a trek evacuation by stretchers is not possible — especially on narrow, slippery or landslide prone trails. In such cases evacuation is done manually.

8. HAM kit

A High Altitude Medical kit (HAM) accompanies trekkers in every team. These kits contain all emergency medication required for high altitude treks. Some of these medicines can save your life. There are 3 such kits with the team. A kit with the trek leader, two others are with the guide and co-guide.

9. Radios

Radios are very big safety devices on a trek. They help establish communication in regions where no other system works. Hand held radios accompany the team on treks. Only on treks in Kashmir and Sikkim radios are not allowed (border areas). 

Technical Safety

1. Technical team on all snowy slopes

A technical team, specialists in snow craft, is present on all slopes where there is a pass crossing or a summit to climb. The ratio of technical team to trekkers is 1:10. They keep trekkers safe and guide them through technical sections of a trek. In an event of an emergency they can reach any trekker in a flash. Our technical team comprises of advanced level mountaineers.

Trek leader and technical staff help a trekker belay down the Buran Ghati wall. PC: Vinod Krishna

2. Microspikes on all snow treks

Microspikes are snow traction devices that are attached to trekking shoes. With microspikes on, walking on snow, even on an incline is a breeze. With microspikes trekkers feel there is super glue under their feet. This makes walking on snow extremely safe. After introduction of microspikes slippages on snow have virtually stopped overnight.

A trekker climbing upto the pass wearing microspikes

Trek Leaders and Safety

Everyone knows Indiahikes has great trek leaders. Some of them have fan following in thousands. More than their popularity, they bring in incredible safety to a trek as well.

Indiahikes trek leaders undergo extensive and continuous training to upgrade their knowledge. Trek leaders in training have to undergo basic life support training (BLS). To become a trek leader at Indiahikes it takes at least 4-6 months. Trek leaders in training go through two stages of trial by fire before moving ahead. At each stage there are rigorous examinations to clear.  

Indiahikes also has special association with NOLS (National Outdoors Leadership School, US). NOLS now conducts their very exhaustive Wilderness First Responder training exclusively for leaders of Indiahikes. The training is done on campus at Indiahikes. 

What it means is this: Indiahikes trek leaders are rare people. They have been carefully chosen, specially groomed, and rigorously trained. They know safety protocols like the back of their hand. Often people ask me why don’t we grow Indiahikes at a faster pace. This is the reason. Grooming trek leaders takes time. We can always increase the intake of trekkers, but we will not be able to increase the number of trek leaders at the same pace. We do not hire from other organisations either. They simply don’t measure up to our standards.

Mountain Staff and Safety

If Indiahikes trek leaders are stars, then our mountain staff members are no less. Our mountain staff are not part-time or seasonal folks. They are permanent employees at Indiahikes. Most of them have done their courses in mountaineering. They have also done a course in Basic Life Support (BLS).

Our mountain staff members have been working with us for many years. They bring in tremendous experience. This experience has been distilled down to minute safety processes, which our mountain staff carry out with effortless ease. Simply put, a mountain staff member who works at Indiahikes can not only save lives, but can single handedly run the whole trek on his own — that’s their level of competence.

Indiahikes Philosophy

Having explained all the processes Indiahikes has put in place, I still maintain that safety on treks is a two way process. Trekkers put in their effort to prepare for the trek, Indiahikes ensures that on slope their safety is taken care of. To ensure safety, we may sometimes have to swallow a bitter pill — like returning from a trek. Yet, this gives us freedom to come back to the mountains again and again.

At the end of the day we live by our ideology. I am not very sure if you are aware of it :

If for some reason you have to return from a trek, you can come back and do the trek again. For this you do not have to pay us any money.

There’s another one.

If you have liked a trek and want to do it again, come back and do it. For that you do not have to pay us any money either.

Why do we have such an ideology? We don’t have a ready answer. We are trekkers. And this is how trekking must be. Our ideology helps us to take bold steps such as these about safety in Indian trekking. It helps us to take safety calls on trekkers knowing trekkers can always come back and trek again.

I would like your thoughts on the new safety protocols at Indiahikes. If you think some of these points need discussions, let me know. Put them down in the comment box below.


The pictures in this blog about Roopkund say it all!

A lot has been said and written about the Roopkund trek. But you can never get enough of this trek. It is the epitome of perfection, isn’t it? In this blog, Garima Jain has documented her first Himalayan trek to Roopkund in September 2016! She went on this beautiful journey with her husband. She says she go back to Roopkund a thousand times over! Wouldn’t we all?

Her blog is a collection of excellent pictures from the trek – the landscape, the trekkers, the campsites, the mountain dogs. It’s got it all!

Roopkund blog - Indiahikes - Garima Jain
Mt.Trishul bathed in silver starlight, as seen from Bedni Bugyal

Here is a small excerpt from the blog.

The view from the last campsite at Bhagwabhasa was fabulous. It was a combination of clouds and mountains, some with snow, and some without. As we were enjoying hot soup amidst the tall mountains it got all windy, rainy, sunny and suddenly there was this huge double Rainbow. None of us had seen such a big complete rainbow ever!

Click here to read her full blog.

You’ll find some more well-written blogs about Roopkund here.



My Fourth trek to Roopkund: Reflecting on the highs and lows

As a Green Trails Intern, I’ve had the rare opportunity of going on several Himalayan treks including Hampta Pass, Roopkund and Kedarkantha. Having done some of these more than once, I can say that each time in the mountains is a brand new experience. This was going to be my fourth time on the Roopkund trek. I was excited as soon as I saw the team at Pathar Nachauni. I couldn’t wait to get back to the Skeleton lake!

Roopkund-Nikshep at Junargali-Indiahikes
Standing at Junargali with Nanda Ghunti to my left and Mt Trishul on my right

Work at Roopkund base camp

For the past 2 months, I’d been at Lohajung. I had been planning clean up campaigns, working on rainwater harvesting, setting up a Bio-digester, researching viable upcycling projects and most importantly training our local staff on green practices. As local staff and mountain men, they have always venerated the mountains. But they didn’t quite know the dangers of plastic and pollution. That’s where Green Trails came into the picture.

Roopkund-Waste seggregation at the camp-Indiahikes
Waste seggregation at the camp

Observations on the trail

When on the trek, I felt a deep sense of satisfaction to see our local staff members sustaining green practices they had learnt. Mahi chotu, Viruji, Yashpal ji and Tari bhaiyya knew how to maintain a compost pit, toilet pit and handle various types waste.

But the happiness didn’t last long…

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Classes on waste segregation at the camp

In spite of having cleaned the entire trail last season, there was garbage everywhere. Everywhere!

Every time we climbed down with sacks of garbage we knew that the slopes would not remain clean for long. It is heart breaking when educated people from cities come to the mountains and leave their trash behind. But we keep cleaning up behind them, trying to spread awareness in the locals and keeping the trail clean.

Roopkund-Painfully littered Kelu Vinayak temple-Indiahikes
Ruthlessly littered Kelu Vinayak temple

The sorry plight of Kelu Vinayak temple

Holy places on the trail often end up becoming the most polluted places. Ironically, credit for most of the litter goes to devotees. With its surroundings strewn with agarbatti covers and match boxes, the Kelu Vinayak temple looked like a helpless mess when we got there.

Roopkund-Kelu Vinayak temple-Pollution in the name of worship-Indiahikes
Kelu Vinayak temple-Pollution in the name of worship


It’s funny how we take pride in our faith yet carelessly leave our filth behind. What’s funnier is that many trekkers have come and gone but none bothered cleaning up this place of worship. We were not going to leave it that way. My batch mates participated in the clean up activity. It took us a lot of time and effort to clear the temple premises.

Roopkund-Trekkers cleaning up the mess at Kelu Vinayak temple-Indiahikes
Trekkers cleaning up the mess at Kelu Vinayak temple

Solving water issues at Bhagwabhasa camp

I even got a chance to help with the water shortage problem at Bhagwabasa. As I was setting up the Rain Water Harvesting system, it started raining. I was contented to see water flowing down the pipe at a decent rate. Perhaps it wouldn’t give them all the water they needed. I just hope it reduces the number of 2 hour long trips they make to get water.

Roopkund-Rainwater harvesting-Indiahikes
Simple rainwater harvesting system at Bhagwabhasa

Besides all this satisfaction, we were blessed with a double rainbow at Bhagwabasa, just above the campsite! We also got to experience light snowfall while descending from Roopkund.

Roopkund-Double rainbow at Bhawabhasa campsite-Indiahikes
Double rainbow at Bhawabhasa campsite

Roopkund itself had dried up almost completely leaving skeletons exposed on the lake bed. Some of us even heard a glacier cracking at Junargali. It sounded like the cracking of ice in the world’s largest ice tray when it is twisted. It’s amazing how the same trail, the same set of mountains and the same destination can reward you with a new experience every time!

Roopkund-Dried up skeleton lake-Indiahikes
Dried up skeleton lake

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Junargali on the Roopkund trek
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Your detailed Roopkund trek guide

Roopkund: An untold story in the Himalayas

Last season, I spotted a small yet fairly significant story during the Roopkund trek. The two salient points about this photo story are – environmental change and industrious people, who are the backbone of this trek.

In the year of 2015-16, due to the El Nino effect and rising global warming, the Indian Himalayas experienced very little snowfall. This practically disrupted everything – from low agricultural produce to further receding of glaciers. Glacial run-off in the Himalayas is the largest source of fresh water.

After speaking to our staff at all the campsites on the way to Roopkund, I came to know that Pathar Nachauni and Bhagwabasa were the most severely affected campsites when it came to availability of clean drinking water. Up until last year, our boys at Pathar Nachauni never struggled to fetch water. This year, the task was monumental.

Pathar Nachauni itself is quite a notorious campsite – with extreme wind conditions and torrential rains. I was told that the underwater springs were drying up due to less snowfall. Hence, Narendra, Santosh, Dhan Singh, Dishu and Raviraj had to go to the bottom of the valley to find a new source.

This summer they had spotted one good source, which dried up within a month!

Roopkund-Water being filled from a new found underground source at Patar-Indiahikes
Water being filled from a new found underground source at Pathar Nachauni campsite on the Roopkund trek. PC: Anuja Gupta

They were shocked to see this change. Finally, one day, while cleaning the campsite surroundings, they  spotted a source at the bottom of the valley. After much discussion with other trekking groups at Pathar, they finally decided on fetching water from there.

For smooth running of operations at a campsite, facility of water for toilet and drinking purpose is crucial. Nathu Seth and Tanni Seth were the most efficient camp managers at Pathar Nachauni and Bhagwabasa.

The boys had to make 50-60 trips down to the bottom of the valley, one after another, with a gerican of 40 litres saddled between their shoulders. It was a sight to see. Most trekkers wouldn’t know how arduous it is to carry a load of 40 litres up and down 60 times in a day, everyday for 60-70 odd days. On learning this, I quickly went up to Santosh and Narendra, young lads of 20, to find out more about this painstaking task. For them, work is worship. It in their blood to be untiring, but they were worried and saddened by the state of nature.

Roopkund-Boys carrying the gerican back to the campsite-Indiahikes
Our staff carrying the gerican back to campsite. PC: Anuja Gupta

They asked me to inform the trekkers to understand the water situation, and use it judiciously. I gathered my trekkers for an acclimatisation walk and Green Trails work only to show them a reality which isn’t a scene from an environmental documentary. They were flabbergasted by the sheer grit and back-breaking work of our support staff.

Roopkund-Our boys filling water at patter-Indiahikes
The boys filling water at Pathar Nachauni campsite. PC: Anuja Gupta

The following morning, one trekker caught fancy to the idea of attempting to lift the gerican of water. After a few feeble steps, he gave up, deeply embarrassed. He was filled with respect for our young chaps at the campsites. He also later shared his moment of truth with fellow trekkers.

Roopkund- Pathar Nachauni Staff- Indiahikes
On the left is Santosh Bist, 18 yrs old, who is a helper at Pathar campsite and religiously fills water. On the right is Narendra Bist (Nari), 20 yrs old, who plays multiple role at Pathar campsite. PC: Anuja Gupta

The Himalayas are surely the most formidable and unrelenting mountains in the world. They constantly teach us to be most humble and egoless, but knowingly or unknowingly, we are disrupting their kingdom and plunging towards the stairway to hell. We have to learn to respect the resources Mother Nature has given us. Without being preachy, I as a global being, urge our trekkers to be respectful and diligent towards our environment and its umpteen resources – so that the Himalayas and its bounties can be enjoyed for centuries to come.